The effort to create a .22 rimfire training and competition version of the 1903 Springfield rifle began just after World War One, as a project of the esteemed then-Major Julian Hatcher. His work would result in the M1922 rifle, of which about 2000 were made. However, the design would go through several significant iterations.
In the mid 1920s, John Garand was tasked with improving the rifle, and he came up with a modified version that went into production in 1925. This would feature a flush fitting magazine (removable), a new stock design, and improved specifications for the barrel and chamber to improve accuracy. As the M1922MI, this would see substantial production and use by both the military and the civilian shooting world (by way of the DCM). However, it was not yet perfected.
In 1934, a second set of improvements would go into production as the M2, against designed by Garand. These included designing the bolt head retaining latch (it had been a weak point of the previous type) and substantially shortening the bolt throw to improve functioning. The M2 type would be produced until 1942, when it would be replaced by a much more economical training rifle made by Mossberg.
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