The first new breech-loading cartridge rifle adopted by the Austro-Hungarian military was the Model 1867 Werndl, firing the 11x42R black powder cartridge. It used an interesting rotating breech locking system, and replaced the Lorenz muzzleloading muskets and the Wanzl breechloading conversions of Lorenz muskets. The Werndl would also turn out to be the rifle that propelled the Steyr manufacturing company to international prominence, as the Austro-Hungarian purchase of some 600,000 Werndl rifles from them (the factory was owned by Josef Werndl) would be the capital infusion needed to turn it into an industrial powerhouse.
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